Electronic Power Steering Failure in Fords

Fords Failing Electronic Throttle Body
Is a Defective Torque Sensor to Blame?

Technology is a fickle friend, isn’t it? And yet automakers can’t seem to help themselves when it comes to cramming it down our tailpipes. That’s not to say all technology is bad, just that when things go wrong it can happen fast and be difficult to diagnose.

Power steering is one of those things you don’t think about until it’s gone. And owners of Ford cars with electronic power assisted steering (EPAS) are thinking about it all the damn time, if you catch my drift.

Why Electronic Power Steering?

Hydraulic systems are so yesterday. They have pumps, fluid, a multi-decade track record of success and relatively easy maintenance. Be gone, hydraulics! Embrace your digital overlord.

Electronic power assisted steering (EPAS) systems replace a lot of the mechanical parts of previous steering assist systems (pumps, fluids, hosts, pulleys) and replaces them with tiny computers called ECUs and a whole bunch of code.

Benefits of EPAS

  1. They are lighter than hydraulic systems
  2. They have variable power assist, giving more help at lower speeds (when you need it most) but are used less at higher speeds
  3. Points 1 and 2 mean your engine can squeeze out a couple extra MPGs
  4. The systems can, in theory, compensate for things like when the car pulls to one side or drifts.

Disadvantages of EPAS

  1. Complexity. Take Ford’s EPAS, for example, which has a Power Steering Control (PSC) Motor, Electronic Control Unit (ECU), and a Torque Sensor and Steering Wheel Position Sensor.
  2. They are difficult to diagnose. Was it a PSC failure or did the ECU send improper instructions? Perhaps one of the sensors is misreading the data it’s supposed to be collecting.

Problems with Ford’s EPAS

Ford’s EPAS suffers from systemic defects that “render the system prone to sudden and premature failure during ordinary and foreseeable driving situations” and cause drivers of the cars to “experience significantly increased steering effort and, ultimately, loss of control.”

There is a mechanical backup, so if the EPAS goes out you’ll still be able to steer. It’s just going to take a lot more effort.

Sudden Shutdown

One major concern about Ford’s EPAS is that sometimes when it goes out, it does so without any warning. No dash lights, no chimes, just a sudden loss of steering assist.

Driving a car without power steering is totally possible, I’m sure your grandfather would tell you he did it for years. But if it’s there and then suddenly POOF not there, well that quick and unexpected change is very dangerous:

“I was driving my 2008 Ford Escape when I made a left turn and my steering wheel froze. It took all my strength to try to turn the wheel to try to get out of the turn and into on coming traffic. I pulled over to closest parking spot, shut the car off and called my husband.”
Lucy G, 2008 Ford Escape Owner from Elgin, IL

What’s the first question a customer service representative asks you when you call with a tech problem — have you tried unplugging it and plugging it back in? The crazy thing is, that sometimes actually works. Some Ford owners have said that shutting the car off and turning it back on sometimes fixes the issue, although it’s only temporary:

“As with numerous others here, steering froze without warning when driving. Shutting off and re-starting the car seems to HAVE TEMPORARILY solved the problem.”
klarry, 2008 Ford Escape Owner from Ashby, MA

Power Steering with Pull Drift

The 2008 Escape (and it’s sibling Mariner) were some of the first vehicles to feature Ford’s pull-drift steering compensation; a part of an all-new EPAS system. Ford describes EPAS with pull-drift as a “sophisticated sensor system that constantly measures the driver’s steering torque, adapts to changing road conditions and helps compensate for slight steering changes.” But what happens when the system stops measuring? Bad things, that’s what.

Ford's EPS with Pull-Drift Compensation

Defective Torque Sensor

When you turn the wheel in your Ford, the torque sensor monitors which way you’ve turned and how far. That information is sent to the ECU, but what happens when the information never gets sent? One widely accepted theory is that a defective torque sensor isn’t giving the ECU the information it needs, and the power steering as a result gets disabled.

So the simplest solution is to just replace the torque sensor, right? Well, unfortunately the torque sensor is part of the steering column assembly and is not serviceable separately. In other words, once that sensor goes the entire steering column needs to be replaced. And that’s expensive with the average repair cost around $1,500.

Ford and Mercury Vehicles Most Likely to Lose Power Steering

Make Model Years Worst Year
Ford Focus 2012-2014 2012: Power Steering Failure
  Focus Electric 2012-2014  
  Fusion 2010-2014 2010: Power Steering Not Working
  Fusion Hybrid 2010-2014  
  Fusion Energi 2013-2014  
  Escape 2008-2012 2008: Power Steering Failure
  Taurus 2011-2013  
Mercury Mariner 2008-2012 2008: Power Steering Stopped Working
  Milan 2010 2010: Steering Locked Up While Driving


Consumers slapped Ford with a class-action lawsuit in a California district court, claiming Ford equipped the Focus and Fusion models with a defective power steering system that is prone to sudden failure.

The official complaint says Ford “failed and continues to fail to disclose to consumers that the defective steering system exposes occupants of the defective cars, occupants of the surrounding vehicles, and pedestrians to the “risk of collisions and grave bodily harm.”

The complaint also says “Ford has ignored, concealed and failed to adequately address the numerous complaints it has received about defective vehicles’ steering failures” and that “Ford’s knowledge of problems with the EPAS system in the defective vehicles was revealed during the course of a NHTSA investigation into steering failures experienced by the Ford Explorer, which suffers from a similarly defective EPAS system.”

The plaintiffs accuse Ford of falsely touting the safety and reliability of the defective autos at the same time the company promoted the vehicles as safe and by lauding the Electronic Power Assisted Steering (EPAS) specifically, states the complaint filed June 27 in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California in San Jose.

Plaintiffs William Phillips and four other individuals from various states and North Carolina-based Performance Fire Protection LLC claim Ford made misleading and reckless public statements about the general safety ratings for defective cars, the suit claims.

A Survival! Followed by a Fizzle and a Fade-Out

The lawsuit was almost dropped when the judge called it “unwieldy in scope and unduly burdensome.” Luckily, the plaintiffs were given a chance to amend their complaints.

In March 2016, the same judge denied Ford’s motion to dismiss the case.

But by January 2017, the lawsuit was denied class-action certification because the judge ruled the plaintiffs couldn’t prove “all owners experienced harm from the alleged defect.”

The plaintiffs were given a chance to amend their complaint, but they didn’t the judge dismissed the case in February 2017.


May 2014: Over 900,000 2008-2011 Ford Escape and Mercury Mariner SUVs were recalled because of failures with the torque sensor inside the EPAS. Additionally, the 2011-2013 Explorer was recalled because EPAS electrical connection failures. Roughly a year later the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) was petitioned to see if that recall really did any good.

April 2015: 520,000 model year 2013-2015 Ford Fusion and Lincoln MKZ, plus 2015 Ford Edge CUVs were recalled because their steering gear bolts can corrode and break, causing an immediate loss of power steering.

May 2015: Almost 423,000 cars can experience an electrical connection failure in their power steering systems. This includes the 2011-2013 Ford Taurus and Flex, 2011-2012 Ford Fusion, 2011-2013 Lincoln MKS and MKT, 2011-2012 Lincoln MKZ, and the 2011 Mercury Milan.

A Timeline of EPAS Failures

: Five Accidents, Six Injuries Prompt Steering Recall

Over 900,000 2008-2011 Ford Escape and Mercury Mariner SUVs because of failures with the torque sensor inside the EPAS. Additionally, the 2011-2013 Explorer was recalled because EPAS electrical connection failures.

: Was Ford's Power Steering Recall Useless?

The NHTSA received a petition to investigate if Ford actually did anything during their previous power steering recall. Allegedly, Ford told dealers to look for trouble codes in the power steering control module. If there weren't any, all the SUVs got was a simple software update.

: Power Steering Lawsuit Given the Green Light

While the judge dismissed some claims, ultimately the class-action was allowed to proceed on the grounds of fraudulent concealment and damages related to the Consumer Legal Remedies Act.

: Electrical Connection Failures in EPAS Lead to Another Recall

Almost 423,000 cars can experience an electrical connection failure in their power steering systems. This includes the 2011-2013 Ford Taurus and Flex, 2011-2012 Ford Fusion, 2011-2013 Lincoln MKS and MKT, 2011-2012 Lincoln MKZ, and the 2011 Mercury Milan.

: Judge Denies Ford's Motion to Dismiss Power Steering Lawsuit

The 2014 lawsuit concerning electronic power-assisted steering system failures shortly after the warranty expires still has life. Ford's motion to dismiss was denied by a judge. Guess they can't steer around the issue afterall, how ironic.

Actions You Can Take

This step is crucial, don't just complain on forums! The sites below will actively manage your complaints and turn them into useful statistics. Both CarComplaints.com and the CAS will report dangerous trends to the authorities and are often called upon by law firms for help with Class Action lawsuits. Make sure to file your complaint on all three sites, we can't stress that enough.

  1. Step 1: File Your Complaint at CarComplaints.com

    CarComplaints.com is a free site dedicated to uncovering problem trends and informing owners about potential issues with their cars. Major class action law firms use this data when researching cases. Add a Complaint

  2. Step 2: Notify the Center for Auto Safety

    The Center for Auto Safety (CAS) is a pro-consumer organization that researches auto safety issues & often compels the US government to do the right thing through lobbying & lawsuits. Notify the CAS

  3. Step 3: Report a Safety Concern to NHTSA

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is the US agency with the authority to conduct vehicle defect investigations & force recalls. Their focus is on safety-related issues. Report to NHTSA

  1. Yes, that is a simplistic overview of how power steering worked. But we’re just going for the basics here. HowStuffWorks.com has a great breakdown if you’re interested in more.  ↩

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